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Twelfth Night, or What You Will
Analysis: Allusions When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
Major Source Texts for Plot and Characters Barnaby Riche, "Apolonius and Silla" (1.4, 1.5) Emanuel Ford, Parismus, (1.4, 1.5) Accademia degli Intronati, Gl' Ingannati(The Deceived Ones) (1.2, 2.2) Niccolò Secchio, Gl' Inganni (The Deceived) (1.2, 2.2) Curzio Gonzaga, Gl' Inganni (The Deceived) (1.2, 2.2) Matteo Bandello, Novelle (translated into the French text Histoires Tragiques by Francoise de Beleforest) Plautus, Menechimi Note: Secchio's play (1562) and Gonzago's Gl'Inganni (1592) both draw from Gl'Ingannati (1531). Shakespeare had access to at least one, if not all of these works. Other Literary Allusions Francis Petrarch, Il Canzoniere (Song Book) a.k.a. Rime Sparse (Scattered Rhymes), see especially Sonnet 190 (1.1) and Sonnet 199 (5.1) Ovid, , see especially Metamorphoses Book Three, The Transformation of Actaeon (1.1.4) Thomas Wyatt, "Whoso List to Hunt" (1.1) Philip Stubbes, (2.2) The Anatomy of Abuses Edmund Spenser, (2.4) Epithalamion Geoffrey Chaucer, (4.2) Rime of Sir Topas Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus and Cressida (3.1) *Note: Shakespeare wrote his own version of the story c. 1602, around the time Twelfth Night was written and performed. Heliodorus, Ethiopica (5.1) Biblical References Sometimes Shakespeare Gives Himself Props Historical References William Barentz, Arctic expeditionary c. 1596-7 (3.2) Robert Brown, Puritan "Brownist" sect founder c. 1581 (3.2) Pythagoras (4.2) Pop Culture References "Peg-a-Ramsey" folk ballad (2.3) "There Dwelt a Man in Babylon" ballad (2.3) "Hold Thy Peace" catch (song) (2.3) " Twelve Days of Christmas" (2.3) "Farewell Dear Love" lyrics (2.3)
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