You will need a four-year degree in computer science. It's worth the extra effort to get a Master's or PhD. Even if your résumé is impressive, one additional way to impress a potential employer is to have the robot you programmed deliver your résumé to their office.
Some of the most-respected programs are at Stanford, University of California Berkeley, Carnegie Mellon, Cal Tech, and MIT. Graduate from one of those bad boys and you'll be well on your way to success.