You will need a four-year degree in computer science. It’s worth the extra effort to get a Master’s or PhD. Even if your resume is impressive, one additional way to impress a potential employer is to have the robot you programmed deliver your resume to their office.
Some of the most-respected programs are at Stanford, University of California - Berkeley, Carnegie Mellon, Cal Tech, and MIT. Graduate from one of those bad boys and you'll be well on your way to success.