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Tanaghrisson (unknown-1754) was born a Catawba but was adopted by the Senecas, a member of the Iroquois League. He became a chief, but was labeled the "Half King" because all of his decisions had to be approved by the Iroquois Council. Around 1750, he was sent by the Council to restore Iroquois control over the Ohio Valley. Iroquois domination was threatened by the Ohio Indians, a subordinate tribe, who had begun trading and negotiating directly with the British, and also by French threats to increase their own presence in the valley if the Iroquois failed to prevent British expansion.

To achieve these goals, Tanaghrisson forged an alliance with the British and took steps to provoke a war between the British and the French by slaughtering French soldiers after they surrendered to George Washington and his provincial militia at the Great Meadows in 1754.

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