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The Count of Monte Cristo
by Alexandre Dumas
Analysis: Allusions When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
Religious References 4.10: "Seek and ye shall find." Matthew 7:7; Luke 11:9 15.7: Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin Belshazzar's feast (Daniel 5, specifically 5:25) 17.206: The Ascension (of Jesus). 31.100: Calvary, the hill on which Jesus was crucified 31.263: The Prophet (Muhammad) 41.79: Saint Stephen of Florence, Saint George Constantinian of Parma, the Knights of Malta 72.7: Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin (Book of Daniel, specifically 5:25) 73.206: Mary Magdalene 85.124: Calvary, the hill on which Jesus was crucified 97.72: Judith, Delilah; women in the Bible 104.114: St. Thomas ("Doubting" Thomas) 105.154: "daughter of Jairus" (mentioned in multiple Gospels); Jesus walking on water 112.8: The story of Abraham and Isaac in the Book of Genesis Literary and Philosophical References 4.28: Louis-Philippe de Ségur's Chanson morale. 9.51: "The fatal stamp of which Virgil speaks" (Virgil, , IV, ll. 70-74.) Aeneid 9.67: E.T.A. Hoffman 10.2: Horace (specifically the Gryphius edition of his works.) 10.12: Canimus surdis. (A misquotation of Virgil's Eclogues: "We do not sing for the deaf.") 10.21: Mala ducis avi domum ("As the shepherd was hurrying;" from Horace's Odes.) 10.29: Bella, horrida bella ("Wars, frightful wars" Virgil , IV.) Aeneid 10.41: Plutarch's Life of Scipio Africanus 10.45: "Two Virgilian shepherds (reference to the Eclogues) 10.55 Molli fugiens anhelitu; molli anhelitu ("Thou shalt flee, panting and weak;" Horace's Odes) 10.87: Justum et tenacem propositi virum ("The man who is firm and just in his intentions;" Horace, Odes) 15.6: Ugolino, a character in Dante's Inferno 16.97: Thucydides, Xenophon, Plutarch, Livy, Tacitus, Strada, Jornàdes, Dante, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Spinoza, Machiavelli, Bossuet 18.61: Arabian Nights 22. 30: Doctor Pangloss, a character in Voltaire's Candide 23.69 "…open, Sesame!" ( Arabian Nights) 29.59: Sinbad the Sailor, a character in the Arabian Nights 31.40: James Fenimore Cooper, American novelist 31.40: Captain Marryat, an English novelist 31.54: Adamastor, a character in Luís de Camões's epic poem Os Lusíadas 31.112: Molière's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme 31.184: Thousand and One Nights (also known as Arabian Nights) 31.199: Aladdin, a character from Arabian Nights 31.248: Dante 32.23: Sinbad the Sailor, a character in The Thousand and One Nights (a.k.a. Arabian Nights) 33.91: Horace, a play by Corneille 33.94: Jean Sbogar, a novel by Charles Nodier 33.326: Avernus, from Virgil's Aeneid 34.5: Martial, a Latin poet 34.5: De Spectaculis by Tertullian 34.72: Parisina, a poem by Byron 34.150: Lord Ruthwen, a vampire from Lord Ruthwen, or The Vampire by Dr Polidori 34.151: Lord Byron 36.90: Lara, from the poem ("Lara") by Lord Byron 36.110: Didier, Anthony; characters from Hugo's Marion Delorme 37.148: Caesar's Commentaries 39.178: Ariosto, Italian poet 47.102: Jean-Jacques Rousseau 48.66: Ariel and Caliban, characters in William Shakespeare's The Tempest 48.67: Socrates, Seneca, Saint Augustine, Gall 52.113: Jean-Jacques Rousseau 52.115: Richard III and Edward IV, characters in Shakespeare's ; Lady Macbeth and Duncan, characters in Shakespeare's Richard III Macbeth 53.66: Lord Ruthwen, a vampire from Lord Ruthwen, or The Vampire by Dr Polidori 53.122: Tom Thumb 54.101: Dante's Inferno 63.51: Desdemona, character in Shakespeare's Othello 63.67: Ugolino, Paoplo and Francesca, Torquato Tasso; historical figures found in Dante's Inferno 64.6: Horace, a Roman poet 67.52: Titania, queen of the fairies in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream 69.125: Homer, a Greek poet 74.28: Voltaire, French writer 76.9: Sappho, Greek poet 78.246: Tom Thumb 82.10: Fiesco, a character from a play by Schiller 88.105: Byron's Lara; Lara, Manfred, Lord Ruthwen 95.75: Brabantio and Desdemona, characters from Shakespeare's Othello 96.28: Théâtre Français; Dorante, Valère, Alceste (characters from Molière's plays) 99.4: Plato 107.78: Reference to Racine's Phèdre 109.10: Dante, The Divine Comedy 112.3: Charles Perrault, author of Sleeping Beauty, among other fairy tales. 113.98: Hamlet from Shakespeare's Hamlet 114.2: Beaumarchais's The Marriage of Figaro 114.127: Plutarch's Life of Alexander 115.4: Don Quixote, by Miguel de Cervantes 116.13: Harpagon, from Moliére's L'Avare. 117.24: Calypso and Telemachus, characters in Fénélon's Télémaque 105.18: Malherbe, a French poet Historical References 1.44: Marshal Bertrand 1.47: "The Grand Marshal," Napoleon Bonaparte 4.76: Joachim Murat 6.3: Joséphine (wife of Napoleon, former Empress) 6.14: 9th Thermidor and April 4th, 1814 (fall of Robespierre, abdication of Napoleon) 6.26: The Holy Alliance (coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Czar Alexander I of Russia, signed by the three powers in Paris on September 26, 1815.) 6.33: Duc d'Enghien 7.17: The carbonari, a group of Italian revolutionaries 8.50: the Chateau d'If (prison, held the Comte de Mirabeau) 9.3: The Reign of Terror 9.2: Brutus, one of the men who killed Julius Caesar 9.4: The "Corsican Ogre" (Napoleon) 10.1: Louis XVIII, King Louis-Philippe 10.40: The battles of Marengo and Austerlitz. 10.48: Grognards ("gripers, grumblers," old veterans of Napoleon's army) 10.79: Girondin 13.3: The Hundred Days 14.78: Archimedes and Marcellus 14.85: Cardinal Rospigliosi 14.90: Machiavelli, Cesare Borgia 14.130: Caligula, Nero 15.107: Abdication and exile of Napoleon 16.47: Charles I, Cromwell, Charles II. 16.51: Napoleon, Machiavelli, Cesare Borgia, Alexander VI, Clement VII. 16.95: Lavoisier, a French chemist 18.30: Cardinal Spada 18.31: Pope Alexander VI 18.32: Cesare Borgia; Louis XII 20.15: Pasquale Paoli, a Corsican patriot 23.18: Brutus, one of the men who killed Julius Caesar 24.29: Alaric, Visigoth king 26.94: Battle of Ligny 26.96: Capture of the Trocadero 26.99: Ali Pasha 28.89: Le Drapeau Blanc (Newspaper) 30.18: Le Sémaphore (Newspaper) 33.37: Roman ruins (The Capitol, the Forum, the Arch of Septimus Severus, the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, the Via Sacra) 33.79: Horatius Cocles, officer in the army of the Roman Republic 33.106: Alexander the Great 33.106: Julius Caesar 33.106: Napoleon Bonaparte 34.88: Countess G—; reference to Byron's mistress Countess Teresa Guiccioli 35.28: The Comte de Chalais 35.45: Edme Castaing, a poisoner 35.129: Karl Moor 36.19: Callot, a 17th century printmaker 36.90: Rothschild, banker. 36.128: Pope Gregory XVI 39.9: Grisier, Cooks, Charles Leboucher; famous "martial arts" instructors 39.10: Luca della Robbia, Bernard de Palissy; Henri IV, Sully, Louis XIII, Richelieu 39.31: Don Carlos of Spain 39.34: King Charles VII 39.39: The Prince of Wales; The Duke of Reichstadt 39.86: Metternich 39.231: Charlemagne 42.66: Louis XIV 44.9: Waterloo 48.28: Attila the Hun 48.66: the Jacobins 50.8: Presses and Débats; newspapers 52.52: King Mithridates 52.92: Haroun al-Rashid 52.94: The Medici, the Borgias 53.223: Ali Tebelin, another name for Ali Pasha 54.56: King Henri IV 54.140: Lucullus, a famous Roman politician 60.36: King Charles X 60.45: The Montagne faction in the Revolutionary convention 63.6: Cleopatra, an Egyptian queen 63.6: Lorenzo de' Medici 63.18: Nero 63.28: Pliny 65.69: King Don Carlos, Charles V 69.125: Belisarius, a general in the army of the Byzantine Empire 69.131: King Otto 70.111: The "July Monarchy" 74.2: King Louis XVIII, King Charles X 77.2: Charles IX 77.2: Catherine de' Medici, the queen consort of King Henry II of France 77.2: Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre 78.6: Lucy of Lammermoor 82.51: Louis XVI 95.21: Phaedrus 101.Title: Locusta, a serial poisoner 104.70: Croesus 105.15: Héloïse, a French nun who had an affair with Abélard, a scholar 113.23: The imprisonment of Mirabeau in the Chateau d'If Mythological References 14.130: Jupiter, Roman god 22.44: Mount Olympus, the home of the Greek and Roman gods 22.44: Mercury, Roman god 24.18: Sisyphus 25.3: Philoctetes, a hero in Greek mythology 31.98: Nestor and Ulysses 31.258: Amphion, a figure in Greek mythology 31.258: Lorelei, a figure in German legend 33.79: Curtius, a legendary Roman hero 33.92: Baccho (Bacchus) 33.339: Romulus and Remus 35.62: The Vestal Virgins, priestesses of Vesta, an Ancient Roman goddess 36.19: Astarte, a goddess 36.41: Nestor, Ulysses, and Circe 39.170: Hercules, Cacus, Perseus, Andromeda; mythological figures whose stories are told in Ovid's Metamorphoses 41.20: Oedipus, the Sphinx 47.49: "Olympian Jove," the Roman god Jupiter 53.46-7: Diana the Huntress, the Venus de Milo, the Venus de Capua, Actaeon 61.4: Flora (Roman god) 66.82: Jupiter (Roman god, reference to various myths regarding his transformation into animals in order to seduce various parties.) 67.52: Queen Mab 73.326: Jupiter, Roman god 76.9: Minerva, Roman goddess 96.101: Endymion 97.38: Amazons, female warriors in Greek myth 97.42: Hercules, Omphale 109.59: Jupiter, Roman god 115.73: "The barrel of the Danaids" Art, Theater, and Music References 3.5: Venus of Arles (Statue?) 15.6: John Martin, English Painter 31.194: The Huguenots, an opera with music by Meyerbeer 33.318: Léopold Robert, a Swiss painter; Schnetz, a French painter 34.72: Lucia di Lammermoor, a tragic opera 34.111-115: Coselli, La Spech, La Sontag, La Malibran; opera singers 34.131: Poliska, a ballet 34.136: Donizetti, composer 34.203: Léopold Robert, Puzzoli, Sorrento; painters 36.52: L'Italiana in Algeri an Opera 39.11: Beethoven, Weber, Mozart, Haydn, Grétry, Porpora 39.103: Béranger, a songwriter 41.3: Dupré, Delacroix, Boulanger, Decamps, Salvator Rosa, Giraud, Müller, Dauzat (artists) 41.5: Léopold Robert, Swiss painter 46.76: Albano, Fattore (artists) 46.39: Thorwaldsen, Bartolini, Canova (sculptors) 62.44-5: Hobemas, Paul Potter, Mieris, Gerrit Dous, Raphael, Van Dyck, Zurbaran, Murrilos, Hobbema 70.85: David (painter); The French Academy ( L'Académie Française) 70.142: Partons pour le Syrie (song) 73.206: Correggio, a painter during the Italian Renaissance 88.94: Reference to Rossini's William Tell 89.1: " Suivez-moi!" a reference to Rossini's William Tell 91.20: Feuchères, Barye (artists) 95.40: Pasta, Malibran, Grisi (singers) 102.11: Germain Pilon, a sculptor
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