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The Count of Monte Cristo

The Count of Monte Cristo

  

by Alexandre Dumas

Analysis: Allusions

When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.

Religious References

  • 4.10: "Seek and ye shall find." Matthew 7:7; Luke 11:9
  • 15.7: Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin Belshazzar's feast (Daniel 5, specifically 5:25)
  • 17.206: The Ascension (of Jesus).
  • 31.100: Calvary, the hill on which Jesus was crucified
  • 31.263: The Prophet (Muhammad)
  • 41.79: Saint Stephen of Florence, Saint George Constantinian of Parma, the Knights of Malta
  • 72.7: Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin (Book of Daniel, specifically 5:25)
  • 73.206: Mary Magdalene
  • 85.124: Calvary, the hill on which Jesus was crucified
  • 97.72: Judith, Delilah; women in the Bible
  • 104.114: St. Thomas ("Doubting" Thomas)
  • 105.154: "daughter of Jairus" (mentioned in multiple Gospels); Jesus walking on water 112.8: The story of Abraham and Isaac in the Book of Genesis

Literary and Philosophical References

  • 4.28: Louis-Philippe de Ségur's Chanson morale.
  • 9.51: "The fatal stamp of which Virgil speaks" (Virgil, Aeneid, IV, ll. 70-74.)
  • 9.67: E.T.A. Hoffman
  • 10.2: Horace (specifically the Gryphius edition of his works.)
  • 10.12: Canimus surdis. (A misquotation of Virgil's Eclogues: "We do not sing for the deaf.")
  • 10.21: Mala ducis avi domum ("As the shepherd was hurrying;" from Horace's Odes.)
  • 10.29: Bella, horrida bella ("Wars, frightful wars" Virgil Aeneid, IV.)
  • 10.41: Plutarch's Life of Scipio Africanus
  • 10.45: "Two Virgilian shepherds (reference to the Eclogues)
  • 10.55 Molli fugiens anhelitu; molli anhelitu ("Thou shalt flee, panting and weak;" Horace's Odes)
  • 10.87: Justum et tenacem propositi virum ("The man who is firm and just in his intentions;" Horace, Odes)
  • 15.6: Ugolino, a character in Dante's Inferno
  • 16.97: Thucydides, Xenophon, Plutarch, Livy, Tacitus, Strada, Jornàdes, Dante, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Spinoza, Machiavelli, Bossuet
  • 18.61: Arabian Nights
  • 22. 30: Doctor Pangloss, a character in Voltaire's Candide
  • 23.69 "…open, Sesame!" (Arabian Nights)
  • 29.59: Sinbad the Sailor, a character in the Arabian Nights
  • 31.40: James Fenimore Cooper, American novelist
  • 31.40: Captain Marryat, an English novelist
  • 31.54: Adamastor, a character in Luís de Camões's epic poem Os Lusíadas
  • 31.112: Molière's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
  • 31.184: Thousand and One Nights (also known as Arabian Nights)
  • 31.199: Aladdin, a character from Arabian Nights
  • 31.248: Dante
  • 32.23: Sinbad the Sailor, a character in The Thousand and One Nights (a.k.a. Arabian Nights)
  • 33.91: Horace, a play by Corneille
  • 33.94: Jean Sbogar, a novel by Charles Nodier
  • 33.326: Avernus, from Virgil's Aeneid
  • 34.5: Martial, a Latin poet
  • 34.5: De Spectaculis by Tertullian
  • 34.72: Parisina, a poem by Byron
  • 34.150: Lord Ruthwen, a vampire from Lord Ruthwen, or The Vampire by Dr Polidori
  • 34.151: Lord Byron
  • 36.90: Lara, from the poem ("Lara") by Lord Byron
  • 36.110: Didier, Anthony; characters from Hugo's Marion Delorme
  • 37.148: Caesar's Commentaries
  • 39.178: Ariosto, Italian poet
  • 47.102: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • 48.66: Ariel and Caliban, characters in William Shakespeare's The Tempest
  • 48.67: Socrates, Seneca, Saint Augustine, Gall
  • 52.113: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • 52.115: Richard III and Edward IV, characters in Shakespeare's Richard III; Lady Macbeth and Duncan, characters in Shakespeare's Macbeth
  • 53.66: Lord Ruthwen, a vampire from Lord Ruthwen, or The Vampire by Dr Polidori
  • 53.122: Tom Thumb
  • 54.101: Dante's Inferno
  • 63.51: Desdemona, character in Shakespeare's Othello
  • 63.67: Ugolino, Paoplo and Francesca, Torquato Tasso; historical figures found in Dante's Inferno
  • 64.6: Horace, a Roman poet
  • 67.52: Titania, queen of the fairies in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream
  • 69.125: Homer, a Greek poet
  • 74.28: Voltaire, French writer
  • 76.9: Sappho, Greek poet
  • 78.246: Tom Thumb
  • 82.10: Fiesco, a character from a play by Schiller
  • 88.105: Byron's Lara; Lara, Manfred, Lord Ruthwen
  • 95.75: Brabantio and Desdemona, characters from Shakespeare's Othello
  • 96.28: Théâtre Français; Dorante, Valère, Alceste (characters from Molière's plays)
  • 99.4: Plato
  • 107.78: Reference to Racine's Phèdre
  • 109.10: Dante, The Divine Comedy
  • 112.3: Charles Perrault, author of Sleeping Beauty, among other fairy tales.
  • 113.98: Hamlet from Shakespeare's Hamlet
  • 114.2: Beaumarchais's The Marriage of Figaro
  • 114.127: Plutarch's Life of Alexander
  • 115.4: Don Quixote, by Miguel de Cervantes
  • 116.13: Harpagon, from Moliére's L'Avare.
  • 117.24: Calypso and Telemachus, characters in Fénélon's Télémaque
  • 105.18: Malherbe, a French poet

Historical References

  • 1.44: Marshal Bertrand
  • 1.47: "The Grand Marshal," Napoleon Bonaparte
  • 4.76: Joachim Murat
  • 6.3: Joséphine (wife of Napoleon, former Empress)
  • 6.14: 9th Thermidor and April 4th, 1814 (fall of Robespierre, abdication of Napoleon)
  • 6.26: The Holy Alliance (coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Czar Alexander I of Russia, signed by the three powers in Paris on September 26, 1815.)
  • 6.33: Duc d'Enghien
  • 7.17: The carbonari, a group of Italian revolutionaries
  • 8.50: the Chateau d'If (prison, held the Comte de Mirabeau)
  • 9.3: The Reign of Terror
  • 9.2: Brutus, one of the men who killed Julius Caesar
  • 9.4: The "Corsican Ogre" (Napoleon)
  • 10.1: Louis XVIII, King Louis-Philippe
  • 10.40: The battles of Marengo and Austerlitz.
  • 10.48: Grognards ("gripers, grumblers," old veterans of Napoleon's army)
  • 10.79: Girondin
  • 13.3: The Hundred Days
  • 14.78: Archimedes and Marcellus
  • 14.85: Cardinal Rospigliosi
  • 14.90: Machiavelli, Cesare Borgia
  • 14.130: Caligula, Nero
  • 15.107: Abdication and exile of Napoleon
  • 16.47: Charles I, Cromwell, Charles II.
  • 16.51: Napoleon, Machiavelli, Cesare Borgia, Alexander VI, Clement VII.
  • 16.95: Lavoisier, a French chemist
  • 18.30: Cardinal Spada
  • 18.31: Pope Alexander VI
  • 18.32: Cesare Borgia; Louis XII
  • 20.15: Pasquale Paoli, a Corsican patriot
  • 23.18: Brutus, one of the men who killed Julius Caesar
  • 24.29: Alaric, Visigoth king
  • 26.94: Battle of Ligny
  • 26.96: Capture of the Trocadero
  • 26.99: Ali Pasha
  • 28.89: Le Drapeau Blanc (Newspaper)
  • 30.18: Le Sémaphore (Newspaper)
  • 33.37: Roman ruins (The Capitol, the Forum, the Arch of Septimus Severus, the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, the Via Sacra)
  • 33.79: Horatius Cocles, officer in the army of the Roman Republic
  • 33.106: Alexander the Great
  • 33.106: Julius Caesar
  • 33.106: Napoleon Bonaparte
  • 34.88: Countess G—; reference to Byron's mistress Countess Teresa Guiccioli
  • 35.28: The Comte de Chalais
  • 35.45: Edme Castaing, a poisoner
  • 35.129: Karl Moor
  • 36.19: Callot, a 17th century printmaker
  • 36.90: Rothschild, banker.
  • 36.128: Pope Gregory XVI
  • 39.9: Grisier, Cooks, Charles Leboucher; famous "martial arts" instructors
  • 39.10: Luca della Robbia, Bernard de Palissy; Henri IV, Sully, Louis XIII, Richelieu
  • 39.31: Don Carlos of Spain
  • 39.34: King Charles VII
  • 39.39: The Prince of Wales; The Duke of Reichstadt
  • 39.86: Metternich
  • 39.231: Charlemagne
  • 42.66: Louis XIV
  • 44.9: Waterloo
  • 48.28: Attila the Hun
  • 48.66: the Jacobins
  • 50.8: Presses and Débats; newspapers
  • 52.52: King Mithridates
  • 52.92: Haroun al-Rashid
  • 52.94: The Medici, the Borgias
  • 53.223: Ali Tebelin, another name for Ali Pasha
  • 54.56: King Henri IV
  • 54.140: Lucullus, a famous Roman politician
  • 60.36: King Charles X
  • 60.45: The Montagne faction in the Revolutionary convention
  • 63.6: Cleopatra, an Egyptian queen
  • 63.6: Lorenzo de' Medici
  • 63.18: Nero
  • 63.28: Pliny
  • 65.69: King Don Carlos, Charles V
  • 69.125: Belisarius, a general in the army of the Byzantine Empire
  • 69.131: King Otto
  • 70.111: The "July Monarchy"
  • 74.2: King Louis XVIII, King Charles X
  • 77.2: Charles IX
  • 77.2: Catherine de' Medici, the queen consort of King Henry II of France
  • 77.2: Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre
  • 78.6: Lucy of Lammermoor
  • 82.51: Louis XVI
  • 95.21: Phaedrus
  • 101.Title: Locusta, a serial poisoner
  • 104.70: Croesus
  • 105.15: Héloïse, a French nun who had an affair with Abélard, a scholar
  • 113.23: The imprisonment of Mirabeau in the Chateau d'If

Mythological References

  • 14.130: Jupiter, Roman god
  • 22.44: Mount Olympus, the home of the Greek and Roman gods
  • 22.44: Mercury, Roman god
  • 24.18: Sisyphus
  • 25.3: Philoctetes, a hero in Greek mythology
  • 31.98: Nestor and Ulysses
  • 31.258: Amphion, a figure in Greek mythology
  • 31.258: Lorelei, a figure in German legend
  • 33.79: Curtius, a legendary Roman hero
  • 33.92: Baccho (Bacchus)
  • 33.339: Romulus and Remus
  • 35.62: The Vestal Virgins, priestesses of Vesta, an Ancient Roman goddess
  • 36.19: Astarte, a goddess
  • 36.41: Nestor, Ulysses, and Circe
  • 39.170: Hercules, Cacus, Perseus, Andromeda; mythological figures whose stories are told in Ovid's Metamorphoses
  • 41.20: Oedipus, the Sphinx
  • 47.49: "Olympian Jove," the Roman god Jupiter
  • 53.46-7: Diana the Huntress, the Venus de Milo, the Venus de Capua, Actaeon
  • 61.4: Flora (Roman god)
  • 66.82: Jupiter (Roman god, reference to various myths regarding his transformation into animals in order to seduce various parties.)
  • 67.52: Queen Mab
  • 73.326: Jupiter, Roman god
  • 76.9: Minerva, Roman goddess
  • 96.101: Endymion
  • 97.38: Amazons, female warriors in Greek myth
  • 97.42: Hercules, Omphale
  • 109.59: Jupiter, Roman god
  • 115.73: "The barrel of the Danaids"

Art, Theater, and Music References

  • 3.5: Venus of Arles (Statue?)
  • 15.6: John Martin, English Painter
  • 31.194: The Huguenots, an opera with music by Meyerbeer
  • 33.318: Léopold Robert, a Swiss painter; Schnetz, a French painter
  • 34.72: Lucia di Lammermoor, a tragic opera
  • 34.111-115: Coselli, La Spech, La Sontag, La Malibran; opera singers
  • 34.131: Poliska, a ballet
  • 34.136: Donizetti, composer
  • 34.203: Léopold Robert, Puzzoli, Sorrento; painters
  • 36.52: L'Italiana in Algeri an Opera 39.11: Beethoven, Weber, Mozart, Haydn, Grétry, Porpora
  • 39.103: Béranger, a songwriter
  • 41.3: Dupré, Delacroix, Boulanger, Decamps, Salvator Rosa, Giraud, Müller, Dauzat (artists)
  • 41.5: Léopold Robert, Swiss painter
  • 46.76: Albano, Fattore (artists)
  • 46.39: Thorwaldsen, Bartolini, Canova (sculptors)
  • 62.44-5: Hobemas, Paul Potter, Mieris, Gerrit Dous, Raphael, Van Dyck, Zurbaran, Murrilos, Hobbema
  • 70.85: David (painter); The French Academy (L'Académie Française)
  • 70.142: Partons pour le Syrie (song)
  • 73.206: Correggio, a painter during the Italian Renaissance
  • 88.94: Reference to Rossini's William Tell
  • 89.1: "Suivez-moi!" a reference to Rossini's William Tell
  • 91.20: Feuchères, Barye (artists)
  • 95.40: Pasta, Malibran, Grisi (singers)
  • 102.11: Germain Pilon, a sculptor

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